|PROJECT TITLE||HARVESTING GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY AND JUSTICE IN THE FACE OF CLIMATE CHANGE|
|LOCATION||Karachi, Hyderabad, Sangher, Thatta, Jamshoro & Badin|
|FUNDING AGENCY||Oxfam Novib|
|BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT / PROJECT AREA / NEEDS AND JUSTIFICATION||Food Security: Sindh despite being richest in natural resources is highly food insecure province in Pakistan. Despite having 14 million acres under crop cultivation in Sindh, over 71 per cent households in the province are food insecure — the highest level of food insecurity among the provinces and region .Of these food insecure households, 34pc are food insecure with moderate hunger and 17pc are food insecure with severe hunger, according to a report drafted by the provincial planning and development department.
Eight of Sindh’s 23 districts, most of them in the southern part of the province and in its coastal belt were identified as having ‘extremely poor’ conditions for access to food.
Policy and legal framework: No legal tool or law is available ensuring food security to the people in Sindh. However, Sindh Government in its report of 2013 on MDGs have reiterated its commitment to take efforts to halve hunger and reduce food insecurity. Similarly, Minister Agriculture in his message on the official website of the department promises for taking efforts for food security. Besides, the government, in a way, purchases wheat at the time of production to ensure support price and protect farmers. Similarly the flour price is regulated by supplying wheat to flour mills at a fixed price. The Government has also a policy to store 30 percent of annually procured wheat as strategic reserve to meet the requirement of people in case any emergency.
Institutional mechanism: Multiple institutions and departments are engaged in diverse activities which contribute to food production, procurement and distribution. There is no single focal department with clear roles and responsibilities to develop and implement comprehensive provincial food policy and maintain the data about food insecurity and plan the interventions.
Agriculture department is major department dealing with extension services, agriculture research, on farm water management, regulation of fertilizer and pesticide, supply and regulation of seed, different trainings and agriculture marketing. Hence this is an important department as far as food production is concerned; however production also depends on irrigation water availability and management. Irrigation department is responsible for overall distribution and management of water and drainage network in the province. Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority [SIDA] has also been established and some part of the irrigation system is managed by SIDA. Irrigation department and SIDA manage irrigation water till the distributaries level; farm water management is in the domain of agriculture department.
Sindh government also has separate department for livestock and fisheries. Livestock department is mainly involved in animal preventive and curative health, piloting programs for enhanced milk, meat and poultry production and supply of fodder for animals in case of emergencies. There are two other important elements of food along with marine fisheries. Karachi Fish Harbour Authority and Fishermen Cooperative Society in association with/under Government of Sindh take care of marine fisheries. Food department is mainly engaged in food procurement of around 1.3 metric tonnes of wheat, its storage at various locations across the province, distribution/rationing through supplies to registered flour mills in the province. Food department also provides supplies to revenue department for distribution of wheat in case or emergencies especially drought emergencies. Besides, food department also coordinates with aid agencies and UN systems (WFP, FAO and etc.) regarding nutrition. The edible oil is also an important part of human nutrition but it is regulated and monitored by federal department of quality and standards.
Climate change: Similarly Sindh is also vulnerable the effects of change. Increasing acidification and sea level rise has been affecting marine life and poses threats to the coastal community. “Like other parts of the world, there is an evidence of sea level rise along the Pakistan coast also”.
Sindh along with entire Pakistan has witnessed effects of severe weather such as 2010 flood and recent drought in Tharparkar desert and its impacts internal migration, destroyed livelihood, crop, livestock and infrastructure. Sindh has low gradient in comparison to other provinces of Pakistan, therefore the flood water stagnates for long time and poses serious challenge for authorities. However, some of the problem emerged earlier but are being aggravated due to climatic variations include degradation of Indus delta and coastal landscape in Sindh. There is also an emerging concern that land in coastal area is being intruded by sea water, fresh water lakes are converted into saline, drought in desert and Kacho areas are posing challenge for food and livelihood. Besides, the times of sowing and harvesting of various crops as well as stages of crop growth are also changing due to weather variability and climate change effects. The extent and pattern of insect and pest attacks on crops are also changing due to climate which poses huge challenge to farmers to respond to them, resultantly the use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides and pesticides has tremendously increased.
A report of metrological department depicts climate change situation in this way ” Compounding these problems are the expected increased risks to the coastal areas and the Indus deltaic region due to sea level rise, coastal erosion, saline sea water intrusion and increasing cyclonic activity in the Arabian Sea. The Indus Delta is already located in the intense heat zone and any rise in temperature would impact human health due to heat strokes, diarrhea, cholera, vector borne diseases; and human settlements due to frequent floods, droughts and cyclones. In this region, temperature is likely to increase by 4°C till 2100 and rainfall is going to be highly variable on temporal and spatial scale. The deltaic region would not only be affected by the local weather conditions but also weather activities upstream Indus and over the neighboring sea in the south due to climate change”
Policy and legal framework: Sindh has not yet developed any clear policy or strategy to address the issues emerging due to climate change. Though national climate change policy has been adapted and provides clear framework and outline, but there are hardly any serious efforts at provincial level to develop a provincial policy. Climate change has become reality, but looking into the political priorities in Sindh it still lacks the clear vision and climate change looks like a luxury. There is no separate institutional arrangement in the province.
Institutional Mechanism: There is no any institutional structure specifically in the province to deal climate change matters and lead debate on climate change for take necessary steps for the purpose. However, the departments of forest, environment and wildlife can play a lead role in initiating the discussions on climate change. However, PDMA, Revenue and Relief Department, and Rehabilitation Department are responsible to deal the emergency situations (floods, cyclones and droughts). Food, Irrigation and Livestock Departments are also engaged in case of floods. Food department based on request of Revenue Department and PDMA, during emergencies, will transport wheat to main cities from its storage for distribution by revenue department. Similarly, irrigation department and SIDA are responsible to control canals, and evacuate water from lands using its drainage and canals system which may save crops or make land available for next cropping. Livestock department is responsible for vaccination, animal treatment and providing fodder in some cases. Thus there is dire need of establishment of institutional mechanism on climate change at Sindh level and formulation of climate change pan at province and district level. Similarly Need of food security policy and plans at provincial and district level are dire need time.
|SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE:||Enabling policy and service environment for “Right to Food” and equitable provision of food & climate justice effectively, systemically and accountably at all levels in Sindh.|
|DETAILS BENEFICIARIES COVERED||