DURATION   March 2015 to September 2018 (42 Months)
LOCATION   Pakistan – Sindh Province / Sujawal District
FUNDING AGENCY   Handicap International
BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT / PROJECT AREA / NEEDS AND JUSTIFICATION The project is in line with ESÜH operative context. Pakistanis one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, both natural- and human-induced disasters. The country is entrenched in different protracted crises, from the disputed Kashmir to the war against armed opposition groups in the north-western provinces bordering Afghanistan. The active conflict in Waziristan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) led to the displacement of millions of people in 2014, some of which found refuge in the impoverished Sindh province. The succession of disasters seriously affected the economic growth of the country, which since 2014 has been included in the OECD fragile states report.

Pakistan’s diverse geography and hydro-meteorological conditions make it particularly vulnerable to disasters, and the country regularly faces more than one major natural disaster a year. Since 2010, a cycle of consecutive annual flooding and drought have further demonstrated that the country is especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. This has a major impact on physical safety, livelihood and food security, particularly in the southern Province of Sindh. This justifies the proposed action in Sujawal district –ex Thatta- and specifically in Kar Malik Union Council. Sajawal is located at 24°36’23” North and 68°4’19” East, is bordered to the northwest by the Indus River, which separates it from

Thatta District, of which it used to be a part. The decision to split Thatta in two was made by the provincial government after the 2010-2012 floods, and was enacted in October 2013. The objective was to harness more support and services to this extremely deprived area. Since 2014, the district structure is slowly taking shape administratively but the services have not yet been upgraded or developed. Kar Malik UC has been chosen to implement this project particularly due to its proneness to multiple hazards (annex III),mainly hydro-meteorological such as floods, cyclones, sea intrusion, flash floods, droughts and also earthquakes. Between 2010 and 2013, the people living in Kar Malik have been affected by three severe episodes of floods followed by drought.  Additionally, it is one of the poorest union councils in Sindh and in Pakistan, and according to the most recent national survey of 2013-14, 52% of its population are classed as deprived. Handicap International has also implemented emergency relief and rehabilitation projects (WASH) in the area, developing specific and actionable expertise that translates into a heightened capacity for local intervention.Through this action, Handicap International is linking and building upon relief-rehabilitation actions with development and addressing the root causes of Kar Malik vulnerabilities and increase resilience.

Disability and disaster: It has been recognized that persons with disabilities (PwDs) suffer disproportionately during disasters. Disasters create disabilities or might increase the level of existing disability or impairment. Past experiences in South Asia show that PwDs affected by physical and intellectual limitations face additional barriers in accessing disaster risk information, evacuation, shelter and emergency support. PwDs’ capacity to cope and survive depends on many factors, one of which is reliance on others (i.e. family members, caregivers, neighbors). This support structure is often negatively affected, if not decimated, in a crisis situation. Women with disabilities face additional, entrenched discrimination. According to Dr Farooq Baqaliand Asif Aslam from UNICEF in Sindh, “disabled women suffer on two accounts: disability and social inequalities based on gender discrimination.” They continue to say that “parents are generally more willing to get the disability of their boy children treated at an early stage… but this is not the case with girls, who are usually neglected and later develop permanent disabilities. This is the reason why there are more disabled women (74%) than men in the country” (a report on disability in Pakistan can be consulted in annex IV).The proposed project is also in line with Pakistan’s legal framework for disability — the country is signatory of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) since June 2011 – and with BMZ’s “Action Plan for the Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities”

HI has developed a solid working relationship with Pakistan’s National Disaster Management Authorities (NDMA) at national, provincial district and local levels. The body was born of the National Disaster Management Act, 2010, its objective is “to act as the implementing, coordinating and monitoring body for disaster management” (Article 9 of NDM Act 2010)and with the mandate is “managing the complete disaster spectrum, including Preparedness; Response; Recovery and Rehabilitation; and Reconstruction”.In the event of a disaster, all stakeholders including government ministries and departments, the armed forces, INGOs, NGOs and UN agencies will work with the NDMA in assessment and relief operations.

With federal administrative devolution in place, responsibilities for Disaster Risk Management (DRM) are devolved to provincial and district levels. At the provincial level, Provincial Disaster Management Authorities (PDMAs) have been established and DDMA at district level. However, the DRM structure does not extend to Union Council or village levels, missing an essential link with target beneficiaries. This is an issue that Pakistani authorities have expressed their desire to address, and the proposed project fits in the National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management by providing support to the DRM authorities in developing their knowledge of Inclusive Community-Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) through training and the provision of technical expertise. Furthermore, as Sujawal district is a new jurisdiction, its administrative systems are not yet fully in place. This operative context provides HI with opportunities to contribute to the development of the district strategy for DRM and ensure the inclusion of the most vulnerable.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE: To contribute an increase in community resilience to natural hazard by enabling communities to identify and address critical issues causing /contributing to their vulnerabilities to disaster risks.
  • Communities are mobilized to assess and evaluate risks through participatory identification and implementation of an inclusive CBDRM model.
  • Linkages of stakeholders at all levels are facilitated to provide individuals and communities with greater means to address vulnerabilities to disasters
  • Community based solutions to address the root causes of vulnerability to disasters are implemented
MAJOR ACTIVITIES   Effect 1: Communities are mobilised to assess and evaluate risks through participatory identification and mapping and CBDRM plan:
  • Induction programme with PFF/HI/ DDMA/PDMA.
  • Develop and implement a KAP baseline survey to understand knowledge, attitude and practices of the communities towards disaster preparedness and response.
  • Disability survey is designed and carried out at community level. The objective of the survey will be to gather disability data and understand more precisely both the disability situation in the area, identify means of prevention and assess the current need of persons with disabilities.
  • Carry out Inclusive Vulnerabilities and Capacity Assessment (VCA) at communities’ level/ cluster level.
  • Development of community/ cluster based DRM contingency plans.
  • Formation or reactivation of inclusive Community based organisation.
  • Awareness raising campaign on inclusive CBDRM approaches, and issues identified through the KAP survey.
  • Training of the communities and DRM stakeholders on inclusive CBDRM and rights of persons with disabilities.
  • Develop inclusive community based EWS and provide basic training on evacuation search and rescue and community drill implementation lesson learned shared.
  • Provision of emergency response and EW kits at community/ cluster level.
  • Establishment of self-help group for persons with disabilities at community level or at UC/ cluster level.
  • Effect 2: Linkages of stakeholders at all levels are facilitated to provide individuals and communities with greater means to address vulnerabilities to disasters
  • Develop a MOU with the Provincial Disaster Management Authority (PDMA), Social Welfare and Health Department and with the District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA should be appointed in 2015) to ensure involvement in inclusive practices in jointly selected activities. (CBDRM planning, CBOs, EWS, mock drills, rescue and evacuation plans)
  • Assessment and selection of 1 or 2 provincial based Disabled People’s Organizations (DPOs)/ network to be linked to the project activities.
  • Conduct the mapping of key DRM stakeholders, all related support services to address the specific need of persons with disabilities and other vulnerable groups.
  • Identify and train with National Institute for Disaster Management (NIDM) local master trainers from PDMA/ DDMA and DPOs with skills to integrate disability in CBDRM processes and vice-versa. The master trainers will further conduct training at local level (cascade training).
  • Develop with DDMA and CBOs an effective emergency communication/ EWS plan and provide material (including mobile phones, solar lamps, HF radio /boat) to enhance direct communication between communities and decision makers.
  • Provide technical support to PDMA/DDMA to review policy documents and communication materials to make them disability friendly (PDMA road map: translation of national strategy into action).
  • Organize exposure visits to other South Asia PDMA/DDMA to learn from best practices in inclusive CBDRM activities.
  • Adaptation of practical guiding tools for implementing inclusive CBDRM processes.
  • Translation and dissemination of training manual “Inclusive Community Based Risk Management” produced by HI under INCRISD project in South Asia.
  • Develop with CBOs an advocacy tool to demonstrate feasibility of inclusive disaster risk management in the district. Ensure that CBO best practices are shared.
  • Effect 3: Implement community based solutions to address the root causes of vulnerability to disasters
  • Conduct a socio-economic assessment for all selected households before and after livelihood support activities (unit of analysis: household and marginalized members within the household).
  • Conduct participatory analyses of the underlying causes of food insecurity and threats to livelihood in the project covered area with a livelihood expert.
  • With communities, assess one structural modification to protect lives, facilitate evacuation, or facilitate EWS. Undertake simple structural mitigation activities at community level.
  • Capacity building of implementing partner to deliver personalised support to target households.
  • Mobilisation and capacity building of local stakeholders on disability to ensure availability and access to services for target beneficiaries (referral system).
  • Identification and selection of households for livelihood support; define the vulnerability criteria that will allow these groups to be distinguished during the course of the intervention.
  • Support selected households to develop and implement their tailored livelihood plans: ex. provision of cash stipend – asset transfer – skills development.
  • Follow-up and coaching of targeted households: Regular coaching is provided as this is necessary to help identify and respond to any technical, business, health or social issues that may face the person and his/her family and endanger their livelihood activities and living conditions.
  • Undertake 2 low cost structural modifications of PDMA building and DDMA building to ensure accessibility for all.
DETAILS OF BENEFICIARIES The project is targeting 124 communities in Kar Malik UC with 2650 households. The activities will target all the 15400 people leaving in the area. Particular attention will be given to vulnerable groups, such as women, older persons and persons with disabilities who will benefit from personalized support services.
[1] Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development  “Fragile States 2014” report [2] A new district encompassing SujawalKharochhan (barring 10 dehs), Mirpur BathoroJaati and Shah Bundar tehsils (talukas) would be Sindh’s 28th district to be called Sujawal. Its headquarters will be located in Sujawal tehsil (taluka). The new district has been established under Section 6 of the Sindh Land Revenue Act, 1967. [3] Handicap International “Anthropological Study on WASH”, Sindh Province, Pakistan, July-October 2012, funded by Action DeutchlandHilft and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation. [4] Pakistan population census 1998 [5] [6](Article 2.c  of NDM Act 2010)