|INCREASING COMMUNITY RESILIENCE TO NATURAL DISASTERS BY REDUCING VULNERABILITY TO RISK
|March 2015 to September 2018 (42 Months)
|Pakistan – Sindh Province / Sujawal District
|BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT / PROJECT AREA / NEEDS AND JUSTIFICATION
|The project is in line with ESÜH operative context. Pakistanis one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, both natural- and human-induced disasters. The country is entrenched in different protracted crises, from the disputed Kashmir to the war against armed opposition groups in the north-western provinces bordering Afghanistan. The active conflict in Waziristan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) led to the displacement of millions of people in 2014, some of which found refuge in the impoverished Sindh province. The succession of disasters seriously affected the economic growth of the country, which since 2014 has been included in the OECD fragile states report.
Pakistan’s diverse geography and hydro-meteorological conditions make it particularly vulnerable to disasters, and the country regularly faces more than one major natural disaster a year. Since 2010, a cycle of consecutive annual flooding and drought have further demonstrated that the country is especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. This has a major impact on physical safety, livelihood and food security, particularly in the southern Province of Sindh. This justifies the proposed action in Sujawal district –ex Thatta- and specifically in Kar Malik Union Council. Sajawal is located at 24°36’23” North and 68°4’19” East, is bordered to the northwest by the Indus River, which separates it from
Thatta District, of which it used to be a part. The decision to split Thatta in two was made by the provincial government after the 2010-2012 floods, and was enacted in October 2013. The objective was to harness more support and services to this extremely deprived area. Since 2014, the district structure is slowly taking shape administratively but the services have not yet been upgraded or developed. Kar Malik UC has been chosen to implement this project particularly due to its proneness to multiple hazards (annex III),mainly hydro-meteorological such as floods, cyclones, sea intrusion, flash floods, droughts and also earthquakes. Between 2010 and 2013, the people living in Kar Malik have been affected by three severe episodes of floods followed by drought. Additionally, it is one of the poorest union councils in Sindh and in Pakistan, and according to the most recent national survey of 2013-14, 52% of its population are classed as deprived. Handicap International has also implemented emergency relief and rehabilitation projects (WASH) in the area, developing specific and actionable expertise that translates into a heightened capacity for local intervention.Through this action, Handicap International is linking and building upon relief-rehabilitation actions with development and addressing the root causes of Kar Malik vulnerabilities and increase resilience.
Disability and disaster: It has been recognized that persons with disabilities (PwDs) suffer disproportionately during disasters. Disasters create disabilities or might increase the level of existing disability or impairment. Past experiences in South Asia show that PwDs affected by physical and intellectual limitations face additional barriers in accessing disaster risk information, evacuation, shelter and emergency support. PwDs’ capacity to cope and survive depends on many factors, one of which is reliance on others (i.e. family members, caregivers, neighbors). This support structure is often negatively affected, if not decimated, in a crisis situation. Women with disabilities face additional, entrenched discrimination. According to Dr Farooq Baqaliand Asif Aslam from UNICEF in Sindh, “disabled women suffer on two accounts: disability and social inequalities based on gender discrimination.” They continue to say that “parents are generally more willing to get the disability of their boy children treated at an early stage… but this is not the case with girls, who are usually neglected and later develop permanent disabilities. This is the reason why there are more disabled women (74%) than men in the country” (a report on disability in Pakistan can be consulted in annex IV).The proposed project is also in line with Pakistan’s legal framework for disability — the country is signatory of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) since June 2011 – and with BMZ’s “Action Plan for the Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities”
HI has developed a solid working relationship with Pakistan’s National Disaster Management Authorities (NDMA) at national, provincial district and local levels. The body was born of the National Disaster Management Act, 2010, its objective is “to act as the implementing, coordinating and monitoring body for disaster management” (Article 9 of NDM Act 2010)and with the mandate is “managing the complete disaster spectrum, including Preparedness; Response; Recovery and Rehabilitation; and Reconstruction”.In the event of a disaster, all stakeholders including government ministries and departments, the armed forces, INGOs, NGOs and UN agencies will work with the NDMA in assessment and relief operations.
With federal administrative devolution in place, responsibilities for Disaster Risk Management (DRM) are devolved to provincial and district levels. At the provincial level, Provincial Disaster Management Authorities (PDMAs) have been established and DDMA at district level. However, the DRM structure does not extend to Union Council or village levels, missing an essential link with target beneficiaries. This is an issue that Pakistani authorities have expressed their desire to address, and the proposed project fits in the National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management by providing support to the DRM authorities in developing their knowledge of Inclusive Community-Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) through training and the provision of technical expertise. Furthermore, as Sujawal district is a new jurisdiction, its administrative systems are not yet fully in place. This operative context provides HI with opportunities to contribute to the development of the district strategy for DRM and ensure the inclusion of the most vulnerable.
|To contribute an increase in community resilience to natural hazard by enabling communities to identify and address critical issues causing /contributing to their vulnerabilities to disaster risks.
|Effect 1: Communities are mobilised to assess and evaluate risks through participatory identification and mapping and CBDRM plan:
|DETAILS OF BENEFICIARIES
|The project is targeting 124 communities in Kar Malik UC with 2650 households. The activities will target all the 15400 people leaving in the area. Particular attention will be given to vulnerable groups, such as women, older persons and persons with disabilities who will benefit from personalized support services.